Journal 7 / 2011 (Museum of Applied Art. Online)
ISSN 2466-460X (Online)
ISSN 0522-8328 (Printed edition)
PDF of the printed edition (7.4 MB)
Editor in Chief: Ljiljana Miletić Аbramović, MA
Issue Editor: Ljiljana Miletić Аbramović, MA
Predrag Dragojević, PhD
Milica Janković, MA
Ljiljana Miletić Аbramović, MA
Jadranka Prolović, PhD
Mirjana Roter Blagojević, PhD
Issue Editorial Assistant: Jelena PopovićAll the papers in the sections Contributions, Polemics, Critic Reviews and Reviews are peer reviewed.
Contents of the Jouurnal 7 / 2011 (Museum of Applied Art. Online)
PAPAL RED SHOES, FROM BASILEUS TO PRADA
L'article rappèle l'importance de la couleur rouge dans le vestiaire papal depuis le haut moyen âge. Puis, suit une description de l'usage des souliers rouges depuis le début du IIème millénaire. Un troisième chapitre évoque l'usage à l'époque moderne et contemporaine et les modifications survenues sous le pontificat de Paul VI et se termine par la description des souliers portés par Jean Paul II et Benoît XVI.
Nikada niko nije oborio pogled ka crvenim cipelama Pavla VI ili Jovana Pavla II. Ali, te 2005. godine, časopis People narugao se crvenim cipelama pape Benedikta XVI, a akteri modnih zbivanja uskomešali su se. Ove cipele posebno dolaze do izražaja u odnosu na belu boju papine odeće, pa to pitanje intrigira više od jednog posmatrača ili TV gledaoca. Neki novinari potvrdili su da su cipele napravljene kod Prade, a one su u stvari delo ruku jednog časnog milanskog čizmara. Međutim, nema ničeg tradicionalnijeg od ove crvene obuće, koju zovemo papučama, na nogama rimskog pontifeksa. NJihovo korišćenje ima dugu istoriju koja svoje korene nalazi u antičkom Rimu, a zatim u Carigradu, na dvoru vasilevsa u VI veku.
Članak podseća na značaj crvene boje u papskoj garderobi, od visokog srednjeg veka. Potom sledi opis koji ukazuje na praksu nošenja crvenih cipela od početka II milenijuma. Treći deo rada govori o njihovoj upotrebi u modernom dobu i o promenama koje su se u vezi sa ovim desile u vreme papstva Pavla VI, a završava se opisom obuće koju su nosili Pavle II i Benedikt XVI.
The article reminds us of significance of red color in Papal clothing, from the times of the High Middle Ages. Thereupon, there is a description of practice of wearing red shoes from the beginning of the 2nd millennium. The third part deals with their use in modern times and related changes at the time of Paul VI pontificate, and it ends with the description of the footwear worn by Paul II and Benedict XVI.
”AND THE YELLOW KABADIA RUSTLED NO MORE”
According to written sources, kabadion is a front slit garment of the kaftan type. It is tight in the upper body and falls straight or in bell-shaped form from the waist down. The analysis of the source proves that this kind of garment existed independently in two societies. The Middle East, in particular Persia, preferred the front slit tube form, with its lower part occasionally bell-shaped and having long and tight sleeves. Caucasian people created a garment cut at the waist, with a bell-shaped lower part. However, the term kabadion or kaba is related only to the Persian-Arabic, Byzantine and Slavonic background.
Byzantium took over this garment during its frequent and close contacts with the Near East and central Asia. In the middle Byzantine period the garment became part of military equipment but was also used in the civilian dress code. Until the Palaiologos dynasty, the civilian kabadion would reach knee- or mid-calf length. By the end of the thirteenth century this garment had become official dress and when appropriately ornamented would indicate certain court titles. Its length would reach ankles. It seems that at the Constantinople court it was the Persian cut of the official kabadion which was worn.
Written sources show that the kavad was worn in Serbia already by the mid-thirteenth century. Judging by visual sources, the kavad appears as court garment during the reign of king Dragutin (1276-1282), worn by members of ruler's family. With the establishment of the empire under Dušan Nemanjić (1346), the kavad, similarly to the Byzantine ones, was introduced as official dress indicating certain titles existing in the Serbian court. In this role, it appears on portraits of Serbian nobility since the mid-fourteenth century. During the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries the cut of this garment changed somewhat. By the turn of the thirteenth century, kavads were of simple cut, both straight Persian and mildly bell-shaped Caucasian ones with long, tight sleeves. During the 1330s short sleeves of the upper garment uncovering long sleeves of the undergarment came into fashion, so the kavad got short sleeves too. By mid-fourteenth century both forms became flared from the waist down. The Caucasian form became emphasized by addition of insets. The Persian one was added side insets flaring at the hips. In the 1370s the sleeves of both forms of kavad were assorted with a long slit buttoned up with densely distributed decorative buttons. By the end of the century the buttons could be undone and later they were replaced by lacing. In the same period, the Persian kavad became full-length and bellshaped by division of the cut into vertical segments. Both changes were due to the need to make the garment more comfortable to wear. The changes might have been influenced by Italian fashion. By the end of the fourteenth century the Chinese type of collar was added to kavad, and by midfifteenth century, the garment was decorated with pointed, Turkish collars as were in use in the first half of the fifteenth century in Byzantium. Thus, for the first time a collar was used as a fashion detail in mediaeval Serbia. In the second half of the fifteenth century, shorter kavads appeared. Under Turkish influence, in the second half of the fifteenth century sleeves could be broad and short, thus resembling a Turkish anteri.
Fabric used for the kavad in Serbia was diverse, and the garment was worn by members of all walks of life. The beauty of the fabric, decoration and the cut were tokens of the owner's rank. Those made of fuller and heavier fabric and with ornaments were worn as outer dresses. During the fifteenth century, kavads made of lighter fabric would be worn under the heavier and broader outer garments. From the second half of the fifteenth century kabadion continued its life as the Turkish anteri, European military uniform and justaucorps of Louis XIV.
WEDDING DRESSES IN SERBIA IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE 19th AND THE BEGINNING OF 20th CENTURY FROM THE COLLECTION OF THE MUSEUM OF APPLIED ART IN BELGRADE
THE CLOTHING PRODUCTION IN ZAGREB IN THE SECESSION PERIOD
This paper focuses on two Zagreb central streets which tailored, produced, presented and traded fashion. Textile production places, fashion salons, fashion tailors as well as textile and clothing assortments of home and foreign provenance are described. Due attention is paid to the fashion press of the period, which used to note fashion events, gatherings, presentation spaces and in the same time to inform about fashion trends. Significant source of information for the reconstruction of clothing production in Zagreb offered advertisements published in the press placed by fashion houses, stores, factories and tradesmen. Their offers included dress items, accessories, and specialised terms for various fabrics.
The emphasis in the paper is on comparative researches both of Zagreb fashion and of other centres so that a comprehensive insight into the fashion development in the area may be accomplished. Women's fashion is described to a large extent since the press paid greater attention to it. The clothing of a woman expressed her husband's financial standing and it also served as status indicator related to young unmarried women. Like all bigger capitals, Zagreb also had ladies representing fashion. They either belonged to nobility or were opera divas and actresses. The Zagreb fashion in the period of Secession was most deeply marked by the work of Gjuro Matič, fashion tailor trained in Paris as well as by contribution of the Industry of Salomon Berger, which by applying traditional elements on the fashion clothing shaped the autochthonous expression present in foreign markets also.
BLUE JEANS : THE MULTIPLE MEANINGS OF MESSAGES IN POPULAR CULTURE
TELO I ODEVANJE KAO PREDMET MODE I UMETNIČKE PREDSTAVE
The methodology draws on an analysis of practice and theory in contemporary fashion and performance design, exposing cross disciplinary approaches and an interchange of ideas that point towards a hybrid practice between the two disciplines. By placing clothing at the centre of this debate it is possible to take into account how the emotional and physical factors as well as the site of the body itself contributes to the making, intention and reading of such work. It is suggested that this area of work could be seen as a type of body located scenographic practice in its own right.
The paper concludes that there are a range of embodied practices where practitioners work with materiality, clothing the body and conceptual approaches that seemingly function in cross disciplinary territory. Attempts to categorise within formal constructs can restrict creative progress and that it is through understanding the body as a site specific context that it is possible to move forward and give meaning to this practice in a contemporary context.
Smeštajući odeću u žižu teoretske rasprave i prakse savremenog modnog i scenskog dizajna, uzimam u obzir način na koji emotivni i fizički činioci, uključujući i samo telo kao prostor, doprinose stvara- nju, nameri i čitanju takvih dela. Uverena sam da se ova oblast može posmatrati kao svojevrstan scenografski postupak na samom telu.
THE CIBORIA OF ŽIČA MONASTERY
In 1206-1217, king Stefan the First-Crowned and Saint Sava I Serb built the catholicon of the Ascension of Our Lord Church in Žiča Monastery which had been the seat of Serbian archbishopric and the coronation church. After completion of the building works, Saint Sava had the interior of the temple decorated. The original altar septum was carved and placed between eastern dome pilasters. Deep proskynetaria (προσκυνητήριον) stood in front of their western sides facing the naos. In her studies and interpretations of the older altar septum, Milka Čanak-Medić offered a hypothetical reconstruction of its lateral branches shaped as proskynetarion whose construction was similar to that of a ciborium. Judging by the position and shape of their lines and by the degree of the transept shift from its transversal axis towards west, it may be assumed that the original temple design required the placement of the ciboria to allow for a deep space in front of the altar septum housing the ceremonial and very important stone furniture. It is possible that the base of this proskynetarion – ciborium of Žiča served also as cover for the holy items and not only as a flanking to the main icons.
In the late 1930s a phiale – ciborium over piscina, designed by famous Serbian architect Momir Korunović, was built in the southwest part of the courtyard of the ancient Žiča Monastery. Nikolaj Velimirović, in his capacity as bishop of Žiča, engaged vigorously in building activities in the monastery. Renovation and decoration of Žiča included the erecting of the phiale very probably in 1939. It was built to the southeast of the altar apse in the Church of the Ascension and was intended for the piscine below to keep the blessed water for Epiphany. In the estate of architect Momir Korunović there remained a drawing of the Žiča phiale. The executed phiale of harmonious and well-thought-out proportions, must have resulted from another, more developed and decorative idea of Korunović whose drawings and reasons for their development we do not know. If compared to locations of known identical ciboria in the Holy Mount monasteries, which are placed mainly in the forefront of the church and stretching to the west along the transversal axis of temples, it must be noted that the place of the Žiča phiale is unusual, as it is sidelined in relation to the existing monastery buildings. Reasons for the decision to place it in the part of the churchyard beyond the reach of usual liturgy practice are not clear. Regardless of these shortcomings, of inadequate and more recent colour interventions on its metal sheet surfaces and of lack of care for the original polychrome of the architectural plastic which is saved only in traces, the phiale of Žiča, although out of service now, certainly represents an attempt to reinterpret models of the Holy Mount which has been proved to be more successful in the field of architecture and shape than in practising liturgy.
The bishop of Žiča, Hrizostom (Stolić), initiated placing of the altar ciborium, work of architect Dimitrije Lj. Marinković, in the Church of Ascension in Žiča Monastery in 2006. The altar ciborium was not to allow its columns to touch the existing holy table at its corners where bloodless sacrifice is offered in glory of Jesus Christ during liturgy (1 Corinthians 10:18-21; Hebrews 13:10). The analysis of the architectural design of the ciborium indicated certain differences and deviations regarding details between the project and final execution of this liturgical instrument. The endeavour in the Church of Ascension in Žiča Monastery is ever more important since it meant intervention achieved by interpolation of contemporary liturgical instruments in the inside of an object registered as national cultural and historical monument of great importance. The position of a contemporary altar ciborium did not represent threat to the existing holy table since its bottom in the lower part of the ciborium remained untouched. The horizontal dimensions of the ciborium were determined with regard to liturgical requirements related to the central part of the altar space. Its vertical dimensions were adapted to the volume of the altar, allowing good visibility of preserved frescoes in the altar. It is most important though that the Žiča altar ciborium serves its essential task rather than the architectural one. This, however, did not prevent its basic forms and all the assorting details to be designed with greatest care as if it had been an altar ciborium with no visual impediment in the front.
COLOUR IN SPACE : COLOURISTIC CULTURE
The limits of colouristic culture define the epoch and the geographical frame it exists in. The impact of regional centres can be singled out, where the colouristic canons develop and disappear, and the colouristic traditions mature tending to expand beyond geographical boundaries. Agents, having impact on formation and expansion of colouristic culture belong to the realm of natural-climatic, psychological and historical-cultural features. Elements of colouristic culture include colour manifestations on the material world objects, which reflect colouristic symbolism and philosophical understanding of the colour.
Modern man's vision has changed. Our time and its tempo of life, speed of perception, technical innovations, film, most often require a synthetic vision of things and colours. Achievements of the colouristic culture – creative experience and results of scientific research – are used in various countries in order to create in a colouristic manner the surrounding object-space environment. Professional tasks within the frame of this approach often neglect the psychological and cultural aspects of architecture. It is obvious that when colour is used in an architectural space the need for improvement of architectural qualities of the space, its esthetic expression and creation of a pleasing psychological environment should be taken into consideration in relation to the kind of activities likely to take place. This justifies the ambience approach in projecting the colouristic features of a town, which is a combination of space and social requirements.
The basic issue of colouristic harmonization of town ambience is to connect colouristic harmonization of architectural spatial structure with perceptions in move which actually prevents the functioning of harmonization methods of colouristic surface compositions. The colouristic harmonization of town ambience is a task requiring far more complex level in relation to harmonization of colours on a surface and necessity to experience colours in space. It is determined by the level of development of colouristic culture, social status and can be successfully solved in the process of architectural urban design through the use of new generation colouristic systems as instruments of harmonization.
Composition of colours in an architectural setting requires the attention to be focused on conditions defined by actual spatial-plan situation. That is, changes of colours should emphasize the compositional implications of spatial framework in objects, rhythmical patterns of their mutual relation in space and comparison of dimensions. The colour is experienced as a secondary architectural means emphasizing the compositional concept which developed without colours.
The significance of architectural polychrome is sublimated in the information contained in the architectural form, nature, society, ways of the social life and culture. Knowledge of the architectural polychrome language is an indispensable element of colouristic compositional skills enabling the polychrome to be used in providing meaningful, emotional, and ideological sense of architecture. Relation to colour has a solid, cultural-historical base encompassing the symbolism of colours and reliable correlation between people when colour semantics is concerned. Expressiveness of the polychrome, its ability to pass information on the importance of architecture and to provoke emotional reactions and esthetic experience, offer possibility for discussion on colours within the frame of a given historical-cultural human community.
The language of colours expands the artisticmeaningful potential of architecture. The language of colours actively influences thoughts and feelings of people by provoking emotional reactions and experiences.
Retrospektivna izložba radova „Sveta keramike“
NOTE ON THE COLLECTION OF CONTEMPORARY ART CERAMICS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM IN ARANDJELOVAC
Retrospective Exhibition “In the World of Ceramics”
In the study of the collection of contemporary art ceramics of the National Museum in Arandjelovac a complex approach is required ranging from the research of specific elements that affect its formation – the general social, political and economic situation in the country, rules of selection and other yardsticks, including the genesis of the contemporary Serbian ceramics and diverse ways of its development – up to its historic-artistic evaluation within contemporary Serbian and world art. Fundamental deliberations may precede particular analyses of individual art works based on esthetic values categories, styles, technical-technological achievements and specific phases in the creative opus of an artist. Complex investigations accompanying thematic and retrospective exhibitions help complete the picture of accomplishments in ceramic art.
The retrospective exhibition of contemporary art ceramics in the National Museum in Arandjelovac offers fifty five select works. The basic aim was to offer a synthesis of diverse artistic expressions, as well as patterns of thought and innovations developed within the period of almost four decades.
STORE WINDOW AS THEATRE STAGE