Зборник 3 / 2007 (Музеј примењене уметности. Online)

ISSN 2466-460X (Online)

ISSN 0522-8328 (Штампано издање)
PDF штампаног издања (4.8 MB)

Главни и одговорни уредник: Иванка Зорић

Уредник броја: Милица Крижанац

Уређивачки одбор:
Љиљана Благојевић
Гордана Васић
Иванка Зорић
Милица Крижанац
Бојана Поповић
Јадранка Проловић
Јелена Тодоровић

Секретар редакције броја: Андријана Ристић
Јелена Ћеранић

Сви текстови у рубрикама Прилози, Полемике, Критике и Прикази се рецензирају.

Часопис је индексиран:
Ebsco, KoBSON

Садржај Зборника 3 / 2007 (Музеј примењене уметности. Online)

Миодраг Јовановић
Дрворезбарство, дуборез српских иконостаса новијег доба по пластичкој идеји и пракси обраде волумена, без обзира на то што је извесно време репертоар био сведен на биоморфне мотиве, припада категорији скулптуре. Захваљујући пластици таквог дрворезбарства, заправо вајарског обликовања дрвених олтарских преграда од XVI до XIX века, у историји српске скулптуре нема цезуре у трајању њеног хиљадугодишњег континуитета.
Кључне речи:
Иконостас, дрворезбарство, гипс, скулптура, континуитет
It is generally considered that there is a break in history of Serbian sculptural art.
It should be noted though that woodcarving of iconostases in more recent periods developed from the idea of plasticity and practice applied in treating their volume. Almost every craftsman who made altar walls in the 18th and 19th centuries would call himself a sculptor or bildahauer after the German word Bildhauer. A number of iconostases had not been executed in wood but in plaster or even in metal. Long lasting reduction of visual expressions to biomorphic motifs resulted from their theological symbolism and liturgical meaning as is found in icons. This changes the previous wrong belief that conservatism of the Church was the reason for the actually non-existing break in the millennium long history of Serbian sculpture.
Предраг Драгојевић
У тексту се разматрају теоријски оквири за проучавање плаката спортског ваздухо-пловства у Југославији током друге половине 20. века. Тежиште се ставља на ликовну компоненту плаката. У њој се препознају уметнички елементи. Затим се у њима траже и оцењују вредности – естетска, историјскоумет-ничка, као и културна, која је и највећа. На тој основи се разматра допринос ових плаката ликовној култури. Указује се на основе развоја плаката, као што су уметник (школовање и пракса), публика и наручиоци, и теорија; такође се оцртавају главне координате развоја ликовног језика у овој врсти плаката (од илустровања, преко стилизације, употребе фотографије и искустава графике, избора визуре и тачке посматрања, до стварања динами-чких склопова, симбола и исказа).
Кључне речи:
плакат, Југославија, 20. век, Музеј ваздухопловства, примењена уметност, теорија
Posters from the Aeronautics Museum art collection include at least three basic components which make them an interesting study object: it is their technical and decorative nature (both important in the civilisational, cultural and artistic context) as well as their function i.e. their purpose (important for their political and historical context). Technical element of a poster is not the first feature to catch the eye of a present-day observer. It, however, represents indispensable material basis of the medium which once exerted impact on those watching while today it witnesses the course of development of the society as well as the economic standing and position of those who organized the events. Decorative element is mainly based upon incorporating visual elements in the work (drawings, pictures, graphics, photographs…). On the other hand use of lettering and placing tokens provide marginal “artistic” ambitions. Visual “speech” on these posters is a subsequent element, appearing as a background, decorated margin and the like. Most frequent it is a supplement embellishing the written information and possibly drawing attention of viewers to the contents of posters. Occasionally it illustrates the written piece of information, explains it partly (for those much unlettered) and very rarely it is an integral part without which the function of a poster would be useless. This in fact makes the decorative part (actually the visual one) a whole in its own right. However limited in scope, it was still adapted to the function of posters (contents of information) and to techniques applied (available material sources and possibilities for reproduction). Therefore, it is based on simplified visual elements and indispensable motifs (parachutes, aircrafts, maps and the like). Society also imposes additional requests thus limiting visual expressions. The artistic features in visual expression on posters could be sensed through experience and sensation, understood through history of arts means (traces of many modern styles can be found in them) and discovered by theoretical discussion ( posters have many characteristics of modern art, hallmarks of modern graphic art as well those of applied art). Artistic values are diverse: the esthetic values differ from case to case; artistic ones are insignificant as they do not change the inherited framework of artistic expression. On the other hand the cultural value of these posters is very great – not only because they document an important part of national culture and its civilisational highlights (development of aviation and its place in public life; attitude towards technology and science; acceptance of universal language of visual communications; connections with the world; influence exerted by technical achievements upon traditional forms of culture, etc.) – but also due to their part played in establishing difference between graphics as art, applied graphics, graphic design and reproductive graphics which all enriched the local visual culture. Evaluation solves the methodological dilemma and marks the course of the studies: visual forms of posters should be examined for their documenting the circumstances in which they were created. Building of cultural values of aviation posters took place when artistic experience in this field was undeveloped and marked by lack of theoretical thought, as well as by insufficiency of practical concepts and requirements posed by the society. All this increases the value of achieved results. This development however had not been equal in every part of SFR of Yugoslavia which made studies of its structure necessary: from “pasting” visual works onto posters, through adapting them to posters as given medium (applied art), up to the visual “dialect” of graphic design. To be more precise, from illustration (1), through stylisation (2) up to abstraction and structural equivalents (3) as one trend and photographs (4) or graphics (5) as the second one which all reduced chances for applying ideological signs and structures (6) thus supporting conceiving of symbols (7), experimenting with changing of aspects (8) and giving complete “pictures of the world” (9) brought about creating a visual language based on experiences with other media but adjusted to the needs of aviation posters (which had to find solutions for specific requirements: visualizing free fall, flying, space…). Half a century of development later the visitor is looking to the same motifs expressed in a different visual language. The rich collection of the Aeronautics Museum provides opportunity to note this change.
Ларс Сари (Lars Saari)
Are quality arguments at all relevant to the contemporary art discourses? Although quality arguments are nowadays seldom used or explicated in the verbalization of the evaluation process of art it still seems at least implicitly to be assumed that art works worth attention not only are able to provoke discursive interest but also should possess some set of qualities.
If the quality issue is relevant – as it is supposed to be – it is up to discourse analysis to extrapolate the quality arguments from the “speech acts” of artists, curators and critics. It should be possible to verbalize the silent quality discourses, which, as a hypothesis, are estimated to be typical for, and each different from one other, at least in (high) modernistic, conceptual and contemporary art, which seem to rely more and more on sociopolitical themes and content. If a modernistic and a conceptual set of “quality arguments” can be defined, what would their equivalent be in the context of sociopolitical art and art criticism?
Key words:
Quality, evaluation, modernism, conceptual art, sociopolitical art, “silent” norms, “ethical” quality
У процесу вредновања централно место треба да има квалитет оцењивања. Уметничко дело треба да бар имплицитно садржи одређене битне «квалитете» да би било у складу са указаном пажњом. Па ипак, данас се ретко користе или објашњавају аргументи који се односе на квалитет када се говори о процесу евалуације.
Ако се врши оцењивање, на чему се заснива то оцењивање? У овом раду покушавамо да истражимо померање са аргумената – који указују, углавном, на визуелне одлике уметничког дела као битног елемета за доношење вредносног суда – на аргументе који су у већој мери концептуални, а затим и на оне социополитичке природе.
«Аргументи квалитета» коришћени у разним периодима могу се излучити из критичких расправа о уметности у сваком периоду. Почетна претпоставка је да се може утврдити бар модернистички, концептуални и етички скуп аргумената. Етос модернизма (најпотпуније представљен апстракцијом) ставља визуелно и естетичко искуство на прво место. Концептуална фаза померила је основе процене на критичко (и концептуално) промишљање укључено у продукцију и интерпретацију уметности, али и на саме оквире уметности.
Какву врсту расправе о квалитету можемо открити иза савремене (друштвенополитичке) уметности? Можда ће бити потребно да укључимо етичке, моралне и политичке факторе у критеријуме квалитета. Како би изгледало једно «етички прелепо» уметничко дело? У којој мери се «застарели» аргументи, коришћени у различитим уметничким стратегијама, још увек могу користити као «аргументи квалитета»?
Ангелина Фолгић Корјак
У раду је приказано петогодишње искуство образовних програма и радионица, које су организоване у Одсеку за образовање Музеја примењене уметности у сарадњи са кустосима–историчарима уметности и другим ванмузејским сараданицима чији је профил образовања психолог, уметник, педагог, дефектолог. Образовни програми и радионице су организовани са циљем да на непосредан начин упознају ђаке са различитим видовима примењене уметности. Активне радионице у амбијенту музеја испуњавају празнину између школе и стварног света, а практично искуство (hands on experience) подстиче процес самосазнавања и креативног развоја.
Кључне речи:
музеј, образовање, креативност, млади
Subject of this paper is the five years long experience with educative programmes and workshops which have been organized by the Education Department of the Museum of Applied Art in cooperation with curators – art historians and other professionals from outside the Museum psychologists, artists, educators for children with special needs. The main goal of educative programmes and workshops was to help school children learn about different aspects of applied art in a hands-on way. Workshops active within a museum environment fill in the gap between schools and the real world, and hands-on experience enhances their selfawareness and creative development.
Having in mind authenticity of an artistic exhibit as object and document used in teaching work with primary schools children was focused on experimental learning and creative thinking.
The atmosphere of a museum study exhibition as exclusive space sustained the enriching the sources of teaching. Diversified, professional explanations our curators provided as well as active communication with children and later having them answer questionnaires by ticking right answers made exhibition perceptions richer and more profound. Creative activities in the Visual Arts Workshop offered every participant opportunity to gain direct artistic experience.
The traditional annual exhibition Children's October Salon was assorted in the past five years with programmes and workshops for talented children, young public and children with special needs thus helping them to broaden their knowledge and develop their creative abilities in the Museum.
There were two workshops organized within the frames of the most important annual exhibition of the Museum, i.e. the study exhibition The Pirot Kilim by Milena Vitkovi}ć–@iki}ć as the author in 2002 and the study exhibition The Impossible – The Art of Surrealism by Milanka Todi}ć, Ph D in 2003. The workshops provided opportunity for the young to gain deeper insight in authentic achievements of Pirot kilim craft, traditional art th branch which bloomed in the 19 century but also to learn more about surrealistic art, its unstandardized themes and techniques and to avail themselves of the works exhibited in the Museum. Programmes “Town in Art” and “Pinocchio at the exhibition Trace in Wood” enrich the school teaching methods through actual experiencing cultural heritage. Relations between the town setting and local history arouse eagerness to know more about the past while European styles in national architecture and art establish connections with global culture. Programmes which use dramatic forms, music, film techniques along with classical museum methods offer to a young visitor a richer and deeper sensation and experience.
Јелена Пераћ, Милица Крижанац, Мила Гајић, Бojaна Поповић
Милица Крижанац