MILJANA M. MATIĆ
Museum of the Serbian Orthodox Church, Belgrade, Serbia
ODEVANJE I IDENTITET: predstave ktitora mirjana u srpskom slikarstvu XVI i XVII veka
DRESSING AND IDENTITY: Representations of Lay Ktetors in Serbian Painting of the 16th and 17th Centuries
Journal 15/2019 (Museum of Applied Art), pages 19-27
Article category: original scientific paper
Abstract (original language):
Portreti ktitora iz reda mirjana predstavljaju autentične izvori koji svedoče kako o istorijskom kostimu i odevanju tokom vekova, tako i o socijalnom identitetu predstavljenih ličnosti, njihovom društvenom statusu i rodnoj strukturi. U radu se analizira građanska muška i ženska nošnja prikazana na ktitorskim portretima u srpskom slikarstvu XVI. i XVII veka: u Trijebnju kod Stoca (četvrta decenija XVI veka), naosu Morače (1574), priprati Svete Trojice Pljevaljske (1592), Crnoj Reci (1599/1600), Divlju kod Skoplja (1603/1604), Pivi (1604‒1606), Žitomisliću (1609), crkvi Svetog Dimitrija u Pećkoj patrijaršiji (1619/1620) i na ikoni Bogorodice Kiriotise i Svetog Nikole iz Narodnog muzeja u Beogradu (XVI vek). Poređenjem sa ktitorskim portretima na tlu Balkana potvrđuje se teza o pojavi sinkretizma u kulturi i odevanju hrišćana toga doba, te odevanja kao činioca identiteta i sredstva socijalne komunikacije.
Key words: (original language)
ktitori mirjani, odevanje, srpsko postvizantijsko slikarstvo
Portraits of lay ktetors represent authentic sources that testify both to the historical costume and history of clothing throughout the centuries, as well as to the social identity of displayed personalities, their social status, and gender structure. The paper analyses the dressing of laymen and laywomen presented on Serbian portraits of the 16th and 17th centuries: voivode Radoje Hrabren in Saint Nicholas Church in Trijebanj near Stolac (the fourth decade of the 16th century), knez Vukić Vučetić in the Morača Monastery (1574), sipahi Vojin and goldsmith Jovan in the Holy Trinity Monastery near Pljevlja (1592), “servant of God” Nikola in the Monastery of Crna Reka (1599/1600), a married couple from the Church of the Assumption of the Virgin in Divlje near Skopje (1603/1604), an unknown ktetor from the Piva Monastery (1604-1606), sipahi Milisav Hrabren from the Žitomislić Monastery (1609), sipahi Jovan in the Church of Saint Demetrius at the Patriarchate of Peć Monastery (1619/1620) and an unknown ktetor from the Littoral depicted on the icon of Theotokos Kyriotissa and Saint Nicholas kept at the National Museum in Belgrade (Inv. No. 2105).
The clothing of male lay ktetors depicted in Serbian painting has all the elements of the civic dress of the higher social strata in the 16th and 17th centuries. It consisted of a white collarless shirt, a kaftan opened at the front and fastened with small buttons, with a firm large collar; a wide belt made of textile, tied in the front in a large knot; the upper part of their garments is long and wide, in the form of a robe or a coat with the sleeves slit under the armpits, often decorated with expensive fur. In some cases, the clothing is complemented by a cap. In terms of dress, besides certain milder influences from the West, the portraits of laymen ktetors – represented mainly on frescos – mirror the clothing practices of prominent members of the Ottoman society. This is due to the fact that there was an ideal model of a Levantine-Balkan citizen, although ktetor representations do have some extraordinary portrait features. A comparative analysis juxtaposing these ktetor portraits with others from the territory of the Balkans seems to confirm the hypothesis about the emergence of syncretism in culture, as well as the role of dressing as a factor of identity and means of social communication.
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