istoričar umetnosti, Muzej primenjene umetnosti, Beograd
NACRTI ANASTASA JOVANOVIĆA ZA UPOTREBNE DEKORATIVNE PREDMETE: luksuzni predmet kao simbolični objekat
DESIGNS BY ANASTAS JOVANOVIĆ FOR UTILITY DECORATIVE OBJECTS: Luxury Object as Symbolic Object
Zbornik 9/2013 (Muzej primenjene umetnosti), strana 83-91
745/749.071.1:929 Јовановић А.
Jedna od oblasti pionirskog delovanja Anastasa Jovanovića na polju srpske umetnosti i vizuelne kulture XIX veka jeste izrada nacrta za izvođenje i dekoraciju upotrebnih predmeta sakralne i profane namene. Nacrti su nastali tokom umetnikovog boravka u Beču, od 1846. do 1860. godine, i u velikoj meri su rađeni pod stilskim uticajima savremenog bečkog umetničkog zanatstva i srednjoevropske primenjene umetnosti. Poručioci nacrta za sakralne predmete bile su srpske pravoslavne opštine, dok se predmeti profane namene nesumnjivo mogu vezati za pripadnike građanskog staleža. U radu je akcenat stavljen na motive nastanka i na funkciju ovih rešenja; ona je simbolički određena kategorijom luksuza, kojoj su predmeti izvedeni po nacrtima (čije je postojanje izvesno) pripadali. Delatnost Anastasa Jovanovića na izradi dekorativnih nacrta razmatrana je s aspekta njihovog funkcionisanja na „tržištu simboličnih dobara“ i interpretirana u kontekstu oblikovanja identiteta njihovih poručilaca i konzumenata.
Anastas Jovanović, građansko društvo, nacrti za dekorativne predmete, identitet, luksuz
One of the areas of the altogether extremely varied artwork of Anastas Jovanović comprised the designs for production and decoration of utility objects, of both sacral and profane use. Beside photography and lithography, this represented an additional field of Jovanović's pioneer activity in Serbian 19th century art and visual culture. Anastas created these designs, which are preserved in several public and private collections today, during his sojourn in Vienna, from 1846 to 1860, and, to a large extent, under stylistic influences that came from the contemporary Viennese arts and crafts and the Central European applied arts. Although there are no preserved documents, we assume, with great deal of certainty, that there existed objects that were created after these designs, and that they were produced in Anastas' studio-workshop in Vienna, which was operational during the 1850s. The assumption is that Anastas made some of the objects for his Viennese maecenas, as well as for the members of the Obrenovic dynasty. It is without doubt that Anastas' workshop in Vienna supplied Serbian orthodox municipalities, while the art objects for the profane purposes were, as a matter of course, meant for a designated circle of consumers, coming from urban strata, and served for decoration and as objects of utility in their private abodes. Judging by their production, the applied stylistic elements and materials of which they were to be made, these objects belong to the same type of luxury objects of international provenance, which used to arrive in Serbia during the 19th century, and that were either ordered or were simply imported goods. Related to a specific social group, i.e. to the members or urban class, the artfully decorated objects of European provenance, or the ones modeled after them, functioned as one of the forms of identification and differentiation this class from other social groups. These objects served to aesthetize the everyday life and common rituals, and this need stands in line with the ideals of the Enlightment that were also present in Serbian culture of the 19th century. As the first and unique designer solutions in Serbian art and visual culture of the 19th century, which have their parallels within the European scope, too, the designs made by Anastas Jovanović for decorative utility objects represent another aspect of his influence practice, although in the realm of visual culture and art, on the formation of Serbian culture of the 19th century as a whole.
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